Date of Award

Summer 8-2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

PhD Counseling Psychology


Professional Psychology and Family Therapy


Pamela Foley, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Thomas Massarelli, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Peter Economou, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Marshall Mintz, Psy.D.


mindfulness, flow, sex role, female athletes, stress, and anxiety


In recent years, studies have emerged that support the use of mindfulness interventions to enhance sport performance (Cathcart et al, 2014; Gardner & Moore, 2012; Jekauc et al., 2017; Kee & Wang, 2008; Moen et al., 2015). Among these studies, there is a gap in the literature in regards to sex role and mindfulness, perception of stress, and ability to reach a flow state. This study discusses current sport psychology literature and explores the relationship between sex role, mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, and flow among 185 team sport female athletes. Correlational Analyses from this study indicated that there is a positive and significant association between mindfulness and flow, which aligns with previous literature that higher mindfulness scores are more likely associated to higher levels of flow (Kee & Wang, 2008; Scott-Hamilton and Schutte, 2016). Results from Multivariate and Post Hoc Analyses suggest that team sport female athletes with a higher degree of both masculine and feminine traits (i.e., those with androgynous sex roles) have higher flow scores compared to females who may fit the more traditional sex role or those with a higher degree of masculine traits. The study provides a better understanding of the connection between sex role, mindfulness, and performance-related variables within the female team athlete subgroup and provides the preliminary groundwork for further studies of mindfulness in sport and its relationship to enhancing performance in female athletes. Overall findings suggest female team athletes at any experience level can benefit from incorporating mindfulness into their practice to assist with performance enhancement and serve as a buffer to stress and anxiety. The study concludes with discussion of study limitations, recommendations, and implications for future research.