Date of Award

Fall 12-14-2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Executive Ed.D. in Education Leadership Management and Policy


Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Elaine M. Walker, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Daniel Gutmore, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jessica Anspach, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Brian Brotschul, Ed.D.


Reading intervention, Reading program, LLI, Leveled Literacy intervention, Literacy, Elementary Reading, Academic Achievement


This study evaluated the efficacy of Fountas & Pinnell’s Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) program and its effect on struggling readers in the first grade, as well as the sustaining effects of the intervention over a two-year period. The students in the study attended an elementary school in a Central New Jersey public school district and received the LLI supplemental pull out reading program five days a week for 30 to 45 minutes per session as prescribed. The study hypothesized that the LLI program would have a significant effect on the reading progress of struggling first-grade students in the districts’ first year of implementation and that the achieved proficiency levels would be maintained through the end of their third-grade year. A causal–comparative design was used with data that were previously collected from a grade one cohort in the district studied. Students in the control group were matched with students in the treatment group according to gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and special education classification. The findings confirmed that no statistically significant differences were found for the Developmental Reading Assessment in Grade 1 or the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers in Language Arts in Grade 3. Based on the analysis, the findings suggest that LLI should be continued and that future implementation should include the use of a common district data protocol to track student progress and attendance. Additionally, the length and duration of sessions should be closely monitored, professional development for teachers should be considered, and close administrative oversight should ensure fidelity to the model. v Procedures for the placement of English language learners should also be established based on language proficiency.