Date of Award

Spring 5-12-2016

Degree Type


Degree Name

PhD Health Sciences


Health and Medical Sciences


Genevieve Pinto Zipp, Ed.D

Committee Member

Fortunato Battaglia, Ph.D

Committee Member

Gavin Moir, Ph.D.


evenly-distributed, bat velocity, bat trajectory


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various weighted warm-up devices on standard baseball bat velocity and trajectory in collegiate baseball players. Methods: Three, right-handed hitters (mean age= 19.3yrs ±1.5yrs; height= 1.74m±.13m; mass=81kg ±20.4kg; baseball experience=14.2 ±1.3) volunteered for this study. Maximal bat velocity was obtained by swinging the 30oz standard bat for the control condition. Participants were then instructed to perform a general and specific warm-up with each of the weighted bats (standard bat with 16oz donut ring (46oz total) and standard bat with 24oz power sleeve (54oz total)) on separate days. Following the warm-up procedures, participants were instructed to swing 3 times with the 30oz standard bat for maximal velocity while impacting the ball resting on the tee located belt-high and in the middle of home plate.Results: No significant differences were revealed by Shewart Chart method for baseball bat velocity or trajectory. Also, it was observed that all participants swung the bat at its lowest point in its trajectory for all conditions. Conclusion: Based upon no changes in the dependent variables in the population tested, Division II collegiate athletes can choose any of the warm-up devices investigated because no deleterious effects were observed.