Shadin Belal

Date of Award

Spring 2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

EdD Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Elaine Walker

Committee Member

Martin Finkelstein

Committee Member

Terri Russo


Tawjihi, Jordan, Secondary Education in Jordan


This study investigated factors linked to the underachievement of boys' education in Jordan. These school factors include the availability of male teachers, availability and infrastructure of school, student-teacher ratio (STR), and the quality of teachers. Both qualitative methods and archival research were utilized to collect data in urban and rural areas in Jordan. Findings reveal the existence of an academic disparity in achievement at the secondary level in Jordan. Male students have a lower participation in Jordan's Tawjihi exam. An analysis of Tawjihi results also reveals that girls outperformed boys in all Tawjihi stream exams except for sharia'h between 2004 and 2009. Shown to be problematic is a shortage of male teachers, specifically in the areas of math and science. In regards to infrastructure, school buildings were deemed to be in poor condition due to their lack of accommodation for the number of male students. Furthermore, unqualified teachers are hired in the areas of math and science to teach male students as a result of male teacher shortages. An analysis of educational policy in Jordan found that policies related to education were generic and intended to provide equal access to education for both males and females. Policy analysis also revealed that the government provided technology and other school material, certified teachers, and access to both coeducational and single-gender learning environments. These findings shed light on the present education of boys in a country trying to expand and improve their educational system. The research proposes recommendations on how school facility conditions, teacher and education quality, and further studies conducted in the area of boys' academic achievement can help to alleviate the gender achievement gap of boys at the secondary level.