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On January 30, 2013 Dr. Peter Schäfer, Perelman Professor of Jewish-Christian Studies, Princeton University, presented the keynote address, Two Powers in Heaven? The Emergence of Binitarian Ideas in Pre-Christian Judaism, at the inaugural lecture of the Institute of Judaeo-Christian Studies 60-year anniversary celebration.

Dr. Schäfer discussed whether beliefs about there being more than one divine power in heaven, such as the Davidic Messiah King or the “Little God” Metron, emerged in pre-Christian Judaism during the Second Temple period and whether these beliefs may have contributed to shaping New Testament Christianity. This document outlines the biblical, qumranic, pseudepigraphical and other early texts Dr. Schäfer evaluated in support of his premise.