Organization Management Journal


This paper integrates diverse research to provide a theoretical model of the process whereby emotional and social intelligence (ESI) is fostered in organizations. The purpose of this paper is to provide: (1) an overview of the theory of ESI, including the historical contributions and current conceptualizations; (2) the impact of ESI on performance, including the research evidence and examples of organizations using ESI; (3) developing ESI competencies and a model for desirable, sustainable change; and (4) a call to action for education and management, including guidelines for fostering ESI in organizations. Unlike general intelligence or personality, the key assumption and rationale for the current paper is that ESI can be developed. Increasing ESI competences through the learning process can guide program design, implementation, and measurement for scholars and practitioners. Research has demonstrated that ESI competencies may be developed through a process of desirable, sustainable change called Intentional Change Theory (ICT).