Date of Award

Spring 5-20-2019

Degree Type


Degree Name

PhD Higher Education Leadership, Management, Policy


Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Joseph Stetar, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Elaine Walker, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Michael Kuchar, Ph.D.


Technology, Barriers, Integration, Instruction, Change


Information technology has evolved enormously over the past three decades. Throughout the world, information technology has become important in all aspects of life, including all strata of education from primary through higher education. With the worldwide circulation of technology, it is expected to be utilized effectively in institutions of higher education and to offer many advantages. The perceived benefits of technology in higher education are not limited to instruction and learning. Despite such optimistic views of the benefits of technology in higher education, several problems remain in determining whether such benefits are actually occurring. According to the literature, reasons for limited adoption of technology are commonly referred to as implementation barriers. This qualitative study employed the methodology of narrative inquiry. Interviews were conducted with nine participants selected by purposeful sampling of English professors in Johnson University. Data were analyzed using traditional coding methods of constant comparison and classical content analysis to identify overarching themes. The analytical framework was guided by Ertmer’s (2010) conceptual framework concerning first- and second-order barriers to the integration of technology. Top themes that emerged were: (1) English department professors use applications such as Dropbox, presentation software such as PowerPoint, Windows Movie Maker,, and Impress. Other technology includes v

EasyBib, iStudious, and online collaboration tools such as Google Keep, Red Pen, Go Visually, MindMeister, Slack, In Vision and Appear in tablets, Google Doc, Kahoot, Cliff Notes, clickers, and smart phones. (2) "Level of technology usage" identified the level of the English department professors’ use of technology. (3) Professors addressed "importance and impacts of technology integration." (4) The "barriers" that English department professors encountered as they integrated technology into instruction were described.