Date of Award

Spring 5-14-2016

Degree Type


Degree Name

MS Experimental Psychology




Michael Vigorito, Ph.D

Committee Member

Amy Hunter, Ph.D

Committee Member

Jeffrey Levy, Ph.D


Successive negative contrast, Anticipatory negative contrast, self-medication hypothesis, ethanol


According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals may consume drugs or alcohol, or engage in other behaviors in order to reduce a negative emotional state (Khantzian, 1985; Gross, 2013; Crum et al., 2013). Rats experiencing a negative state induced by various stressors (Bertholomey et al., 2010), or a decrease or loss in reward value of a sucrose solution (Manzo et al., 2015; Manzo et al., 2014) demonstrate increased consumption of alcohol. I used successive (SNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC) procedures to further examine this hypothesis and the previous findings (Manzo et al., 2015), that rats increase consumption and preference for ethanol in post-shift sessions of a SNC procedure. The results of the present study confirm these findings, and in addition, demonstrate that an ANC procedure does not affect ethanol consumption.