Date of Award

Spring 5-16-2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Executive Ed.D. in Education Leadership Management and Policy


Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Gerard Babo, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Barbara Strobert, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Albert D. Graham, Ph.D., Ed.D.

Committee Member

Paula Howard, Ed.D.


inclusion, regular education, propensity score matching, influence of inclusion on regular education students, academic performance, academic achievement


This study examined the influence of an inclusive secondary language arts classroom setting on the academic performance of Grade 11 general education students in two suburban New Jersey high schools on the Language Arts Literacy section of the 2013 New Jersey High School Proficiency Assessment (NJ HSPA). The sample was selected using Propensity Score Matching, a technique utilized to marginalize the influence of selection bias. The final sample was comprised of 214 students in Grade 11 in a New Jersey suburban, upper middle class district during the years 2010-2013. The variables that were included in this study were gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, attendance, length of time in district, past performance as measured by the 2010 New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge 8 (NJ ASK 8), placement in a secondary inclusion language arts classroom, and number of years placed in a secondary inclusion language arts classroom. Analyses were conducted using multiple regression models, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and factorial ANCOVA. Results of this study indicated that placement in an inclusion classroom did have a statistically significant negative influence on the performance of this sample of eleventh grade non-disabled students on the Language Arts Literacy section of the 2013 NJ HSPA. Non-disabled eleventh grade students who were placed in an inclusion language arts classroom for two or more years did not perform as well on the Language Arts Literacy section of the 2013 NJ HSPA as their peers who spent fewer years in an inclusion classroom. Further research is needed in the area of inclusion to determine additional factors that may have contributed to the findings.