Date of Award

Winter 12-13-2013

Degree Type


Degree Name

Executive Ed.D. in Education Leadership Management and Policy


Education Leadership, Management and Policy


Elaine Walker, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Daniel Gutmore, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Beverly Burr, Ed.D.

Committee Member

Harold Smith, Ed.D.


no child left behind, student achievement, title I students, urban district schools



With the need for greater education reform, President George W. Bush and Congress enacted No Child Left Behind (U. S. Department of Education, 2001). The enactment of NCLB was accompanied by additional requirements concerning accountability for student achievement. The search for methods that provide educational enhancements continues through the work of schools and local community members (Hock, Pulvers, Deshler, & Schumaker, 2001). Supplemental Educational Services (SES) are defined as supplementary academic instructional services intended to raise the level of academic achievement of Title I students in schools that have failed to meet federal mandated AYP standards for three consecutive years.

This study examined the effectiveness of the SES programs in large Texas Title I urban district schools (Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin) that were required to offer this program during the 2010 and 2011 school years. To determine if participation in Supplemental Educational Services affected student achievement, measurements of Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores were collected and analyzed from over 24,000 eligible students who participated in supplemental reading or math programs from the previous year. Students were coded according to their grade level and participation status. The outcomes of this study established that while there were various increases in the academic achievement of students taking part in this program, the growth was limited to a comparatively low number of participants. The increases were evident mostly along grade levels. Middle school students (Grades 6-8) that participated in SES programs fared worse than high school students (Grades 9-12) in all four research questions.